AGRICULTURE

 

Agriculture is the source of livelihood for nearly two-thirds of the population in India. It is predominantly rainfed covering about 60% of the country’s net sown area and accounts for 40% of the total food production. Droughts and floods are frequent and the sector is already facing high degree of climate variability. The performance of agriculture sector has a direct bearing on food supplies and food security. India is projected to become the most populated country by 2030 and will need to produce an additional 100 million tonnes of food grains to feed the large population. In the agriculture sector, the need for comprehensive risk management and insurance is further enhanced due to these reasons.

 

Keeping in view the above challenges, Government of India is implementing policies/missions targeting various threats facing agriculture. Some of the important ones are National Food Security Mission, Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana to promote organic farming practices, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana to promote efficient irrigation practices and National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology.

 

1) The National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) aims at enhancing food security and protection of resources such as land, water, biodiversity and genetics. The mission focuses on new technologies and practices in cultivation, genotypes of crops that have enhanced CO2 fixation potential, which are less water consuming and more climate resilient. India has developed 580 district level (covering many states) contingency plans based on early warning systems and other weather forecasting systems.

 

2) Government of India adopted a mega project called the National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA). Its four main modules include Natural Resource Management, improving crop production, livestock and fisheries and institutional interventions.

 

3) A Scheme has been launched to provide in mission mode Soil Health Card to every farmer. Additionally, 100 mobile soil-testing laboratories have been setup across the country.

 

4) National Agroforestry Policy (NAP) of India aims at encouraging and expanding tree plantation in complementarity and integrated manner with crops and livestock. It will help protect and stabilize ecosystems, and promote resilient cropping and farming systems to minimize the risk during extreme climatic events. It will also complement achieving the target of increasing forest/ tree cover.

 

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