Biodiversity: India, a mega diverse country with only 2.4% of the world’s land areas, harbours 7-8% of all recorded species, and 4 out of 34 global biodiversity hotspots. In order to protect the biodiversity from changing climate, India has developed a biogeographic classification for conservation planning, and has mapped biodiversity rich areas in the country. The protected area network has increased from 427 (3.34% of total geographical area) in 1988 to 690 (5.07% of total geographical area) in 2014.


Himalayan Ecosystem: The Himalayas form the most important concentration of snow covered region outside the polar region. It is highly sensitive to global warming. The detailed glacier inventory of Indian Himalayas indicates presence of 9579 glaciers in the Himalayas, some of which form the perennial source of major rivers.


The National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) addresses important issues concerning Himalayan Glaciers and the associated hydrological consequences, biodiversity and wildlife conservation and protection, traditional knowledge societies and their livelihood and planning for sustaining of the Himalayan Ecosystem. Government has also launched National Mission on Himalayan Studies to complement NMSHE with the objective of building a body of scientific and traditional knowledge along with demonstrating replicable solutions to the problems in thematic areas including natural resource management, capacity building, long-term ecological monitoring etc.


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