In the endeavor towards a low carbon economy, India is focusing on low carbon infrastructure and public transport systems like Dedicated Freight Corridors and energy efficient railways to reduce their environmental impact.


1) Indian Railways handles 3 million tonnes of freight and 23 million passengers daily and is the world’s third largest network. The endeavor is to increase the share of Railways in total land transportation from 36% to 45 %, thereby decreasing the load on less efficient diesel operated road traffic.


2) Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFCs) have been introduced across the country. In the first phase, two corridors viz. 1520 km Mumbai-Delhi (Western Dedicated Freight Corridor) and 1856 km Ludhiana-Dankuni (Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor) are being constructed. The project is expected to reduce emissions by about 457 million ton CO2 over a 30 year period. With a number of energy efficiency measures undertaken, Indian Railways has achieved 19.7% improvement in Specific Fuel Consumption for Freight Service Locomotives and 21.2% improvement for Coaching Service Locomotives during the last 10 years. Indian Railways is also installing solar power on its land and roof tops of coaches.


3) Recognizing its fuel efficiency, environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness, the Government is promoting growth of Coastal Shipping and Inland Water Transport. To enhance the inland waterways transport, Government has announced the implementation of Jal Marg Vikas for capacity augmentation of National Water Way -1. It is also proposed to establish integrated Waterways transportation grid with a view to connecting all existing and proposed National waterways with road, rail and ports connectivity. Another initiative in this direction is the Sagarmala Project with the objective to augment port-led development and promote efficient transportation of goods. Bharatmala Project which envisions constructing about 5,000 km of road network all along the coastal areas will further provide connectivity to these ports.


4) The vision of Urban Transport policies is to focus on moving ‘people’ rather than ‘vehicles’, in which Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) would play an important role.


5) Around 236 km of metro rail have been made operational in the country. Further, about 550 km are under construction and 600 km under consideration for different cities across the country including Ahmedabad, Pune, and Lucknow. Delhi Metro, which has become India’s first MRTS project to earn carbon credits, has the potential to reduce about 0.57 million tonnes of CO2e annually. Delhi Metro has also initiated installation of 9 solar power generation facilities and plans to increase their number.


6) The mass-transit and urban transport projects initiated under the National Urban Renewal Mission also have positive climate change impacts in the long-run. About 39 urban transport and mass rapid transport projects have been approved and about 19 projects have been completed so far.


7) Solar powered toll plazas have been envisaged as a mandatory requirement for toll collection across the country.


8) India has recently formulated Green Highways (Plantation & Maintenance) Policy to develop 140,000 km long “tree-line” with plantation along both sides of national highways. 1% of total civil cost of projects is to be set aside to implement the policy.


9) With a view to facilitating international commuting by highways, Government of India has approved signing of the Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) Motor Vehicle Agreement to promote safe, economical efficient and environmentally sound road transport in the sub-region and support regional integration.


10) Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid & Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) is a scheme formulated as part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) to promote faster adoption and manufacturing of hybrid and electric vehicles in the country by providing incentives.


11) Under the Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Program, Government of India in 2014 finalized country's first passenger vehicle fuel-efficiency standards. They will take effect beginning in April 2016, and set the efficiency targets for new cars. The standards will keep 50 million tons of CO2 out of the atmosphere. India aims to improve fuel standards by switching from Bharat Stage IV (BS IV) fuels to Bharat Stage V (BS V)/ Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) across the country in the near future.


12) National Policy on Biofuels has adopted an aspirational target of 20% blending of biofuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The government also launched the National Bio-diesel Mission identifying Jatropha curcas as the most suitable tree-borne oilseed for bio-diesel production. With the intention of further promoting biofuels, India has begun consultations on allowing 5% blending of biofuels in diesel that would be consumed by bulk users such as the railways and defence establishments.


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